Reproductive Immunology Associates Reproductive Immunology Associates
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Reproductive Immunology Associates
805-578-7000
Location
(805) 578-7000
(805) 578-7004
WMatzner@aol.com

Laboratory Studies Performed at RIA


Study Test Method Tube
Requirements
Antiphospholipid Antibodies Panel
(18 antibodies)
antibodies to cardiolipin,
phosphatidylserine,
phosphatidylethanolamine,
phosphatidic acid,
phosphatidylinositol,
phosphatidylglycerol
(IgM, IgG and IgA isotypes)
ELISA 10 cc SST
 
Indications:
Antiphospholipid antibodies should be tested in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and/or failed in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.
 Pathophysiology:
Antiphospholipid antibodies can interfere with implantation and placental formation. They also lead to a hypercoagulable state, resulting in arterial and venous blood clots.
Antinuclear Antibodies Panel
(6 antibodies)
Antinuclear antibody,
double stranded DNA antibody,
anti-Sm antibody,
anti-RNP antibody,
anti-SS-A antibody,
anti-SS-B antibody
ELISA 10 cc SST
 
Indications:
Antinuclear antibodies should be tested in persons suspected of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases and women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and failed IVFs.
 Pathophysiology:
Antinuclear antibodies lead to intracellular destruction with resultant tissue inflammation. For example, placental villitis and vasculitis can contribute to a miscarriage.
Antithyroid Antibodies Panel
(2 antibodies)
Anti-microsomal antibody,
anti-thyroglobulin antibody
ELISA 10 cc SST
 
Indications:
Antithyroid antibodies should be tested in women with a history of recurrent IVF failures. In addition, they are seen frequently in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.
 Pathophysiology:
Antithyroid antibodies do not directly affect the placenta or fetus, but are a strong indication of polyclonal B-cell activation. The latter is implicated in reproductive failure.
Antipaternal Leukocyte Antibodies Panel
(2 antibodies)
Non-complement fixing maternal antipaternal leukocyte antibodies (blocking antibodies or allo-antibodies) Flow cytometric assay female 10 cc SST
Male (2) 10 cc Na heparin
 
Indications:
Antipaternal leukocyte antibodies should be measured in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.
 Pathophysiology:
Antipaternal leukocyte antibodies are normally produced in early pregnancy to block the maternal immune system from attacking the paternal antigens on the developing fetus. Lack of these antibodies leads to first and second trimester miscarriages.
Immunophenotype
(7 parameters)
Extensive white blood cell differential, including
T-cells (CD3),
B-cells (CD19),
T helper cells (CD4),
T suppressor cells (CD8),
activated T cells (DR),
natural killer cells (CD56/CD16),
and cytotoxic B cells (CD5/CD19)
Flow cytometric assay 4 cc EDTA
 
Indications:
Natural killer cells and Cytotoxic B cells should be measured in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and/or recurrent failed IVFs.
 Pathophysiology:
Natural killer cells detect small cancer cells and kill them before they can become tumors. In high numbers, these cells may misinterpret the fetus as a cancer and kill it.
Natural Killer Cell Activation Assay The percentage of NK cells displaying the activation marker CD69 Flow cytometric assay (2) 10 cc Na heparin
 
Indications:
Natural killer cell activity should be measured in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and/or recurrent failed IVFs.
 Pathophysiology:
Natural killer cells detect small cancer cells and kill them before they can become tumors. If these cells are highly active, they may misinterpret the fetus as a cancer and kill it.
Natural Killer Cell with IVIg Assay
(12 parameters)
A functional assay that assesses killing power of NK cells and ability of IVIg to inhibit this activity in-vitro Flow cytometric assay (2) 10 cc Na heparin
 
Indications:
Natural killer cell activity should be measured in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and/or recurrent failed IVFs.
 Pathophysiology:
Natural killer cells detect small cancer cells and kill them before they can become tumors. If these cells are highly active, they may misinterpret the fetus as a cancer and kill it.
Human Leukocyte Antigens
(HLA) ABC
Class I Major Hisotocompatability Antigens (tissue type) PCR Technology 4 cc EDTA
 
Indications:
HLA typing can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. It is required if the patient will need a combination of paternal plus donor leukocyte immunization. HLA typing is also helpful in determining susceptibility of patients with specific diseases (e.g. Diabetes Mellitus I, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus) to certain complications. Classically, it is used to determine the appropriateness of tissue typing in transplantations.
 Pathophysiology:
When couples share HLA antigens there is a higher probability that the woman will not be able to synthesize protective allo-antibodies, resulting in an immune-mediated miscarriage.
Human Leukocyte Antigens
(HLA) DR/DQ
Class II Major Hisotocompatability Antigens (tissue type) PCR Technology 4 cc EDTA
 
Indications:
HLA typing can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. It is required if the patient will need a combination of paternal plus donor leukocyte immunization. HLA typing is also helpful in determining susceptibility of patients with specific diseases (e.g. Diabetes Mellitus I, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus) to certain complications. Classically, it is used to determine the appropriateness of tissue typing in transplantations.
 Pathophysiology:
When couples share HLA antigens there is a higher probability that the woman will not be able to synthesize protective allo-antibodies, resulting in an immune-mediated miscarriage.
DQα
(Genotyping)
HLA DQα Alleles (Genotyping) PCR technology 4 cc EDTA
 
Indications:
DQα and DQβ genotyping should be performed in patients suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss or multiple failed IVF cycles.
 Pathophysiology:
Autoimmune phenomena, such as antiphospholipid antibodies and natural killer cell activity, are exacerbated when the mother and fetus share the same DQα or DQβ genotypes.
DQβ
(Genotyping)
HLA DQβ Alleles (Genotyping) PCR technology 4 cc EDTA
 
Indications:
DQα and DQβ genotyping should be performed in patients suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss or multiple failed IVF cycles.
 Pathophysiology:
Autoimmune phenomena, such as antiphospholipid antibodies and natural killer cell activity, are exacerbated when the mother and fetus share the same DQα or DQβ genotypes.